Training Matters


Vol. 17, No. 1 May 2016

Why Training Matters

Does training matter in child welfare? If so, why?

Over the years North Carolina’s governors and legislature have shown they certainly believe training matters. Child welfare training requirements in our state got their start in 1991, when Gov. Martin issued an executive order requiring training for CPS workers. In 1998, with the support of the legislature, the NC Division of Social Services began building a training system for all areas of child welfare.

Today we have a robust training system offering 59 child welfare curricula, including pre-service and in-service courses. For an overview of what’s available, click here.

We Focus on Competencies
One reason child welfare training in North Carolina matters is that it is competency-based. A competency is “a cluster of related knowledge, skills and attitudes that affects a major part of one’s job role or responsibility” (Parry, 1998).

Each course we offer is developed based on competencies. For example, a competency for CPS workers is: “Understands the importance of a comprehensive and balanced assessment, knows what data must be gathered and how to thoroughly assess alleged abuse or neglect, family strengths and needs, and the risk and safety of children.”

We develop our courses, such as CPS In-Home Services, by targeting specific competencies and establishing learning objectives for them. Think of learning objectives as steps on the path to achieving competency.

A learning objective for the competency listed above would be that a worker can “Explain how to conduct the types of assessments that are completed as part of the social worker’s role in In-Home Services.”

In our classes we use many approaches to help child welfare workers meet learning objectives, including lecture, individual and group discussion, and skill-building practice activities.

In 2014-15, a total of 123 child welfare workers completed CPS In-Home Services. The box below outlines other key training statistics for 2014-15.

This leads us back to our original question. Does training matter?

Very much so. Training matters because it enables child welfare workers to begin the process of learning the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to do their jobs successfully.

Kathy Dobbs is Program Manager of the Child Welfare Services Staff Development Team within the NC Division of Social Services.

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Making Sure Courses Are Current, Helpful

To help you keep pace and to ensure child welfare professionals in North Carolina have access to information about the best ways to achieve positive outcomes for families and children, the NC Division of Social Services and its partners are continually revising and updating their training courses. Here is an update on some recent revisions.

Coaching Children’s Caregivers through Challenging Moments

The Course: In this two-day, classroom training, participants learn a partnership-based coaching approach and skills to help caregivers make long-lasting changes in their lives.

Target Audience: Because it teaches skills and knowledge that are helpful when working with families at any stage of the child welfare process, all child welfare professionals can benefit from taking this course.

What Will Be Different? This revision intentionally mirrors the coaching approach and techniques taught in Staying Power! A Supervisor’s Guide to Coaching and Developing Child Welfare Staff so supervisors and staff can speak the same language and apply the same coaching strategies. Information specific to child development and behavior management was pared down because much of this is covered in other courses. This gave us time to broaden the practical application of coaching to address the many challenges families face when they are asked to make changes and learn new skills. This revised course provides up-to-date research on the impact of coaching families, specific tools for coaching, and more opportunities for workers to practice those tools and skills.


Domestic Violence Policy and Best Practices in Child Welfare

The Course: This three-day classroom course teaches about North Carolina’s child welfare domestic violence policy, how to implement it, and best practices when working with families experiencing domestic violence.

Target Audience: This course is highly recommended for all county DSS employees in all areas of child welfare.

What Will Be Different? The Division’s Crystalle Williams, a lead trainer for this course, says the biggest change comes with the addition of a third day. “We found that two days is not enough time to spend on the complex nature of domestic violence and the intersection of child maltreatment,” Williams says. “More time can be spent understanding what domestic violence is, what it isn’t, and how to effectively intervene and keep children safe.”

Specific changes to the course include a new policy activity that incorporates scenarios, a new section on CPS intake screening guidelines, and a more in-depth discussion of the effects of domestic violence on children. The course also spends more time on the elements of an effective services agreement, and includes a practice activity where participants construct a services agreement using formal and informal resources.


Staying Power! A Supervisor’s Guide to Coaching and Developing Child Welfare Staff

The Course: This two-day, classroom training introduces supervisors and agency leaders to advanced concepts, tools, and practices that will enhance staff motivation and team effectiveness within their agency.

Target Audience: This course is for child welfare supervisors, managers, administrators, and directors employed in a NC county DSS.

What Will Be Different? This course is shorter. In response to supervisors’ feedback, Staying Power! is now offered as a two-day skill development training. The advanced techniques learned in this course will help supervisors see the parallel between the needs of their staff and the needs of the families their workers serve. Supervisors will explore what motivates staff and the impact supervisors can have on reducing turnover in their teams. Coaching skills taught in this class complement those taught to workers in the course Coaching Children’s Caregivers through Challenging Moments. This will help supervisors and staff learn to understand and use the same coaching “language” and strategies.

This revised course provides current research on staff turnover—it’s impact as well as effective interventions. Participants will also learn about team development and the dynamics of effective teams, which they will apply in scenario-based activities to address all areas of worker development.


Understanding and Intervening in Child Neglect

The Course: This self-paced, online course teaches about different types of neglect, how to recognize them, and their potential impact on families and children. It also teaches learners how to differentiate between poverty and neglect and to assess risk of harm to the child in the context of neglect.

Target Audience: All child welfare professionals can benefit from taking this course.

What Will Be Different? This course was recently revised to incorporate new research and to add more effective, improved activities. This course now emphasizes a holistic approach for responding to neglect that focuses on building protective factors, strengths-based case planning, and evidenced-based practices.

To learn more about these courses or to register, go to

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The Latest on TIPS-MAPP

Over the last several years the NC Division of Social Services has been moving from the foster parent pre-service training MAPP/GPS, which it has been promoting and endorsing for years, to an updated version of MAPP called Trauma-Informed Partnering for Permanence and Safety: Model Approach to Partnerships in Parenting (TIPS-MAPP). Here’s an update on this effort.

Satisfaction Surveys
Since January 2014, when TIPS-MAPP was first implemented in North Carolina, 99% of those who have completed the post-course satisfaction survey have agreed or strongly agreed that their understanding of the topics covered in this training significantly increased. Survey respondents also have said the course helped them develop skills to improve their practice.

More Realistic Scenarios
One of the big differences between TIPS-MAPP and previous versions is that it gives learners more opportunities to practice using realistic scenarios.

The course uses eight children’s stories that are very representative of children that are in care. Participants are introduced to these eight children early in the course and then, as they work through key course concepts (for example, grief and loss), they do a practice activity about what that key concept looks like for these children. These children’s stories are very realistic and diverse, and include a baby experiencing failure to thrive, a six-year-old who has been physically abused, a teen mom, a young man who is gay, and a boy who is HIV positive and whose mother is dying of AIDS.

The NC Division of Social Services’ Deb Gallimore is one of several trainers responsible for our state’s transition to TIPS-MAPP. Asked about the scenarios used in the course, she says “Behind every behavior is a need. We are here to help identify and address these needs.” These scenarios, Gallimore says, help to get this point across.

Participant Responses
The positive response to TIPS-MAPP is also reflected in the comments of those who have completed the course. Here are few examples:

I was very glad to see the updated, more authentic case studies in the material, for example an African-American child in care because of parents’ substance abuse, a kid in care identifying as gay, the added information about children’s sexual behaviors, the impact of trauma on children in care, etc.

[After taking this course] I have completely changed the way I perform my duties at work. I have had so many “Ah Ha” moments it was unbelievable. . . . This training should [be] mandatory. I believe most everyone who takes this training will change the way they practice. When I say mandatory, I mean for judges, physicians, social workers, and any other stakeholder for our foster children.

Modeling Partnership
Another thing Gallimore and participants value about TIPS-MAPP is that much of the time it is co-taught by a social worker and a foster or adoptive parent.

As Gallimore puts it, “These training pairs model the critical partnerships between social workers, birth parents, and foster parents.”

She adds, “Not only that, but it makes a big difference when you are being taught by someone who has ‘been there and done that.’”

If you have questions about TIPS-MAPP, please contact Deb Gallimore (

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New Courses for Workers and Supervisors on Secondary Traumatic Stress

Ours is a high-risk profession. Child welfare workers and supervisors are confronted every day—both directly and indirectly—with danger and trauma. This can lead to secondary traumatic stress (STS).

Signs, Sources, & Consequences of STS
As physician Rachel Naomi Remen (1996) notes, “The expectation that we can be immersed in suffering and loss daily and not be touched by it is as unrealistic as expecting to be able to walk through water without getting wet.”

For child welfare professionals, getting “immersed” in trauma is truly part of the job description. We experience difficult events such as:

  • Hearing about the victimization and abuse of children,
  • Having a child or adult we’re working with die,
  • Assessing horrendous abuse and neglect reports, and
  • Viewing images of serious child abuse injuries.

These and other experiences can cause STS, which may bring with it feelings of helplessness, anger, and hopelessness. STS can also cause symptoms and reactions that parallel post-traumatic stress disorder (e.g, re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal).

Left unaddressed, STS can cause all sorts of problems. It can hinder workers’ ability to do their jobs, negatively affect their health, and ultimately cause them to leave the profession. These things, in turn, undermine child welfare agencies’ capacity to achieve the outcomes they seek for children and families. Worker turnover, when it occurs, also brings with it tremendous financial costs.

Helping Agencies Prevent and Respond
There are things we as individuals can do to build our resilience and improve our ability to manage stress and negative experiences. But agencies also have a crucial role to play—they can and should take steps to create and maintain caring environments that support staff as we go about our vital but challenging work.

To meet the needs of individual workers and their agencies, the NC Division of Social Services, in partnership with the UNC School of Social Work, has developed two new competency-based, classroom courses:

  • Secondary Trauma: A Course for Supervisors & Managers, and
  • Secondary Trauma: A Course for Child Welfare Workers

Each of these courses, which are profiled in the box below, will be offered ten times in the coming year.

Secondary Trauma: A Course for Child Welfare Workers

Format: One classroom day.

Why Attend? This course will help you manage your physical and emotional responses to the child abuse and neglect you encounter on the job. You will learn and practice a variety of strategies that will help you prevent and respond to secondary trauma.

Audience: Child welfare line staff employed in a NC county department of social services agency.

Secondary Trauma: A Course for Supervisors & Managers

Format: Two classroom days.

Why Attend? On Day 1 you’ll learn to prevent and respond to secondary trauma at the personal level, which is what workers learn in the 1-day STS course. On Day 2 you’ll learn to effectively target STS at the worker, supervisor, and agency level, and you’ll develop a plan to address this issue in your agency.

Audience: Supervisors, managers, administrators, and directors employed in a NC county department of social services agency.

These Courses Complement One Another
To prevent and respond effectively to STS, workers, supervisors, and agencies each must take action. For this reason, although it is not required, supervisors and managers are encouraged to attend the 2-day STS training before their staff attend the 1-day STS course for workers. If they do this, supervisors will be in a better position to practice specific skills taught in the course, to support their staff, and to promote workers’ transfer of learning.

How to Enroll
Log in to your account at and search for "secondary trauma" to register.

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NC Resources to Support Improved Practice in Child Welfare

Chances are you’ve already read Children's Services Practice Notes or Fostering Perspectives. If not, consider it—they are great resources for supporting child welfare practice. Not only is the information helpful for you as an individual, it can also be used to facilitate discussions with your peers, with youth and families, and in team staffings and unit and department meetings. To subscribe to either of these publications (or both) go to

Children’s Services Practice Notes provides child welfare professionals with information about research and practice models. Online issues include the following:

Making Quality Assessments (Dec. 2013). Explores the relationship between effective assessments and family engagement.

Timely Permanence (March 2014). Reinforces why timely permanence matters and describes our state’s strong commitment to achieving this goal.

Prescription Drugs and Child Welfare Practice (March 2012). Supports thorough assessments by answering common questions and describing the way substances affect parenting.

Trauma-Informed Child Welfare Practice (May 2012).Discusses the effects of trauma on parenting and child development and describes evidence-based treatments.

Child Welfare Practice with Adolescents(June 2012).Covers teen brain development, runaways, human trafficking, involving youth in CFTs, and more.

Child Neglect: Impact and Interventions (Jan. 2013). Describes evidence-based interventions for children that have experienced neglect.

Preventing Child Maltreatment (May 2013). Promotes the Strengthening Families Framework and parenting education programs that may prevent child maltreatment.

Family Reunification (June 2013). Timely reunification continues to be a challenge in NC. This issue shares resources and information to promote timely, successful, and lasting reunification.

Attachment and Child Welfare Practice (July 2014).Describes what attachment is, how it works, and how to respond effectively to attachment problems.

Safety Resources and Kinship Care (Dec. 2014). Provides clarifications and useful tips for the appropriate, successful use of safety resources and kinship placements.

Partnering with Schools (Jan. 2016). Provides information and tips to help child welfare professionals work closely with schools to monitor children’s academic progress and promote their learning and development.


Fostering Perspectives, goes out twice a year to every licensed foster parent in North Carolina, and also to North Carolina’s child welfare professionals. Available issues include:

CFTs in North Carolina (May 2012). Child and family team meetings provide an opportunity to engage families, youth, and community supports in the development and implementation of service agreements. This issue explores ideas and strategies that make it easier to understand CFTs and support their success.

Foster Parents and the Courts (Nov. 2012). Shares key information about the courts and the role foster parents kin caregivers can play.

Focusing on Child Well-Being (May 2013). Highlights what resource parents and social workers can do to help children lead healthy, happy, successful lives.

The Focus on Child Trauma (Nov. 2013). Shares what it means to be a trauma-informed parent, strategies for parents, and how you can learn more about this topic, which is so connected to the safety, permanence, and well-being of children.

Foster Care, Delinquent Behavior, and Juvenile Justice (May 2014). Offers guidance on how to prevent youth from getting involved with juvenile justice as well as what to do if youth are charged with a delinquent act.

Permanence for Older Youth in Care (Nov. 2014). Teens yearn to live on their own but also need connections to people who will always be there for them. This issue focuses on understanding and responding to teens’ need for belonging and lifelong support.

Taking Care of Yourself (May 2015). Shares perspectives from foster parents and others about the importance of self-care in order for your family to be healthy and successful.

Children’s Services Practice Notes and Fostering Perspectives are sponsored by the NC Division of Social Services and produced by the Family and Children’s Resource Program, part of the Jordan Institute for Families at the UNC School of Social Work.

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A Creative Course Structure for Understanding a Complex Subject: LGBTQ Youth in Care

by Marianne Latz and Lindley Myers

Did you know that youth in substitute care are more likely to be lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) than youth in the general population?

It’s true! While 2% to 5.6% of people in the United States identify as lesbian, gay or bisexual (Gates, 2014), 23% of females and 10.2% of males in substitute care identify as something other than “fully heterosexual” (Courtney, 2009).

LGBTQ Youth in Care
Despite this fact, social workers and foster parents are often unaware of the sexual orientation and gender identity of young people in their care, or of the challenges they face.

This lack of awareness occurs for many reasons. Often it is because youth feel unsafe. In the words of a North Carolina foster parent, “[Young people in foster care] were almost willing to hide this from the world to avoid another rejection, especially from their foster parents or the social worker—people that they knew were going to make daily decisions about their lives.”

According to the Human Rights Campaign (2014), young people who are LGBTQ are:

  • Twice as likely to be verbally harassed and called names at school;
  • Half as likely to say they’re happy;
  • More likely to feel they have no adult to talk to about their personal problems; and
  • More than twice as likely to experiment with drugs and alcohol.

LGBTQ youth experience more placements and are more likely to live in a group home than their straight counterparts (Wilson, et al., 2014; Laver & Khoury, 2008). When in care, many experience discrimination and harassment from foster parents, group home staff, and peers (Berberet, 2004; Laver & Khoury, 2008).

Even well-meaning adults, without an understanding about how to support these youth, may contribute to their isolation and poor outcomes. As you can imagine, all of this can adversely affect their well-being.

A New Resource
With this in mind, the NC Division of Social Services asked the Center for Family and Community Engagement (CFFACE) at NC State University to provide a training to help educate foster parents and foster care social workers about how best to support the safety, permanence, and well-being of youth who identify as LGBTQ. CFFACE is proud to announce the launch of the on-demand training created to meet this need: Learning to Support, Include, and Empower Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans* and Questioning Youth in Substitute Care.

The process of creating any training is an adventure. In this case, the journey to reach the published curriculum brought many distinct voices to the table.

Our process veered in a new direction when a decision was made to conduct interviews with North Carolina residents who could speak directly about youth in the foster care system. Interviewees included foster care workers, foster and adoptive parents, community supports, advocates, and foster care alumni.

The results of these interviews were stunning. Listening to the voices of colleagues and neighbors as they shared their thoughts and unique perspectives made the statistics come alive. The team at CFFACE wanted to share with learners the power of the story these voices were telling. The idea of a podcast-inspired module was born. The “In Our Own Words” module incorporates quotes from interview recordings into a narrative about the needs and experiences of youth in our foster care system who identify as LGBTQ.

The Course Structure
Think of the course as a three-legged stool. The narrative serves as one leg sharing what North Carolina citizens have to say and, along with two other legs, forms the foundation of the course. “By the Numbers” shares outcome data like the statistics shared at the beginning of this article. “Binaries and Continua” deconstructs the sometimes-confusing terminology surrounding the LGBTQ community. Words we use to talk about a subject are instructive, not only by defining but also by pointing to what is important to understand.

These three modules support the final lesson, “Making a Difference.” Here, best practice models are shared so the learner can take the information and determine how to apply it in their own practice or home.

This course also contains other important material for those that want to continue to explore and learn including a recorded panel discussion, a glossary, and a list of helpful resources for anyone wanting to explore issues of faith related to sexual or gender diversity.

You may take the full 4-hour training in one sitting or take it a little at a time, returning at your convenience to continue the course. Once you have finished, you may print a certificate of completion. To enroll in the course, go to:

Take the Course!
Please take some time to expand your knowledge of how to provide care to these vulnerable kids and share with others about the availability of this training. If you have questions about the training, contact CFFACE at 919-513-2339 or

Marianne Latz is Center Manager for the NC State University’s Center for Family and Community Engagement; Lindley Myers is Vice President of Blue Spiral Consulting.

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Update on NC’s Child Welfare Redesigned Pre-service Training

North Carolina has redesigned the cornerstone of its child welfare training system, the pre-service course for new workers and supervisors. Piloting of this new version began in February; statewide implementation will begin in July 2016. This article outlines the changes to the course and the benefits they bring to child welfare professionals and their agencies.

The pre-service course—its formal title is Child Welfare in North Carolina: Pre-Service—is required for all new child welfare professionals employed with NC county departments of social services. Offered 30 times a year, the pre-service is a mainstay of our training system. In 2014-15, 544 people took this course.

Big Changes, Big Benefits
To ensure training is high quality, the NC Division of Social Services and its partners continually update their courses. As the box above shows, the Division has modified the pre-service before. This latest revision, made in partnership with the Jordan Institute for Families at the UNC School of Social Work, may be the biggest yet. The new version of this course:

  • Reduces the time needed to complete pre-service from four to three weeks. While the course still offers the required 72 hours of pre-service training, this 25% reduction helps agencies by putting new workers on the job sooner;
  • Decreases the number of days learners spend in the classroom from eleven to eight, which reduces travel costs for agencies;
  • Allows learners to take the course’s first week online, so they don’t have to leave their agencies;
  • Enhances learning by adding new online videos, online activities, and more electronic course materials;
  • Helps learners by tying week one learning activities to real-world experiences in the agency; and
  • Gives supervisors more opportunities to be involved in training of new workers, and includes a new Transfer of Learning tool.

Many of these changes have been made in response to input from county DSS agencies, which have expressed a desire to reduce travel time and time staff spend away from the agency for pre-service. Changes have also been made to respond to requests from supervisors, who have asked to know more about what their staff are learning so they can do more to help staff prepare for the complex role of child welfare worker.

New Content
The redesigned pre-service features new content and updates. Additions include information about new laws and policies, trauma-informed practice, protective factors, working with LGBTQ youth, and promoting normalcy for young people in care. The course also covers collaboration with families and community agencies and gives learners a basic grasp of documentation and the use of case records.

Of course, because pre-service’s main goal—orienting staff before they have direct contact with families—is the same, many things haven’t changed. For example, the course still defines roles and responsibilities for all child welfare roles (intake through adoption) and emphasizes the importance of family-centered practice. See the figure below for an outline of the new structure and sequence of pre-service.

A Great Beginning
Although the latest changes make pre-service better than ever, it is important to keep in mind that this is an introductory course. It cannot prepare a staff member for all they will need in their child welfare career. In pre-service and elsewhere the Division emphasizes the importance of both taking the “200-level” courses it offers and of ongoing coaching and mentoring by supervisors. Supervisors are the key to success for new workers.

Learn More or Register
To see an orientation for supervisors to the redesigned pre-service, click here.

To register for pre-service log in to

If you have questions about pre-service, please contact Ginger Caldwell (; 919-527-6365).

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New Online Courses Promote Well-Being for Children in Foster Care

The NC Division of Social Services is pleased to announce the launch of a pair of self-paced, on-demand, online courses designed to help child welfare professionals and their agencies promote the health of children in foster care:

  • Fostering Connections I: Partnering to Improve the Health and Well-being of Children in Foster Care is a brief course for child welfare line staff, supervisors, managers, and directors. It provides knowledge and tools to help you collaborate successfully with medical homes and the local community care network to improve outcomes for children in foster care.

  • Fostering Connections II: Building Local Systems to Improve the Health and Well-being of Children in Foster Care, which is also brief, is designed to help agency leaders create successful interagency partnerships between DSS, medical homes, and the local community care network.

Both courses were developed with funding from the NC Pediatric Society by the Family and Children's Resource Program, part of the Jordan Institute for Families at the UNC-Chapel Hill School of Social Work.

Learn More or Take These Courses
Visit for full course descriptions or to start taking these courses. No registration is required. Simply log in to your account and navigate to the “Personalized Learning Portfolio (PLP) / Online Courses” section at

Note: Many other health-related practice tools and resources for DSS child welfare staff can be found at the Fostering Health NC online library at

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Federal Government Finds Room for Improvement in NC’s Child Welfare System

In February 2016 federal reviewers released a report assessing the performance of North Carolina’s child welfare system, which includes programs involved in maltreatment investigations, foster care, and adoptions. Called the Child and Family Services Review (CFSR), this report recognized our state’s strengths in a number of important areas, including the pre-service training delivered to prospective foster parents.

On the whole, however, its conclusions were sobering. North Carolina did not meet federal standards for any of the 14 outcomes and systemic factors evaluated by reviewers.

Not Pass/Fail
The US Department of Health and Human Services’ Children’s Bureau conducts a review of every state’s child welfare system every seven to ten years. Since reviews began in 2001 there have been three “rounds” of reviews, with the federal government modifying review procedures with each new round. Since they began, no state has met federal standards in all areas assessed by the review.

While NC Division of Social Services leaders take issue with some specific findings in the current federal report, they acknowledge there is much room for improvement in our child protective services, foster care, and adoption programs.

Speaking to the Associated Press, Sherry Bradsher, Deputy Secretary for Human Services within NC DHHS, which oversees social services, stated “As painful as it might be, there’s nothing new or shocking in the report in terms of something that we didn’t know.”

“The thing to remember about the CFSR,” says Kevin Kelley, Section Chief for Child Welfare Services in the Division of Social Services, “is that it is not pass/fail. The CFSR standards are set so high because the federal government wants to see both excellence and continual improvement. That’s something we agree with completely.”

What’s Next
Now that we have the CFSR findings, North Carolina must come up with a program improvement plan (PIP) to enhance our child welfare system. Workgroups of statewide stakeholders convened in March to help inform the development of this plan, which is sure to include strategies for reducing barriers to system performance and increasing positive outcomes for children and families.

Once it is approved by the Children’s Bureau, North Carolina will have two years to meet the goals outlined in the PIP. This will be followed by a third year of oversight and monitoring. If we don’t meet our goals in that time, North Carolina may face financial sanctions. In 2011 our state was penalized $1.2 million for not meeting one goal of its previous federal program improvement plan.

Although the details of our new PIP are not yet known, it will likely focus on improvements related to practice within county DSS agencies and collaboration with the courts and outside service providers. NC’s child welfare training system will also likely play an important part in our state’s PIP.

To Read NC’s CFSR Report
Click here.

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Archived Webinars Support Child Welfare Practice in NC

The NC Division of Social Services regularly sponsors 90-minute webinars to enhance child welfare practice. Recordings of many of these events, as well as supplementary handouts and follow-up documents, are available here. If you haven’t already, pay a visit to this site. Webinar recordings and the documents that go with them provide a wealth of useful practice information, as the examples you'll find here illustrate.

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NCDSS-Sponsored Child Welfare Training Available through

Click HERE to view, download, or print a concise, handy table outlining training requirements and all child welfare courses sponsored by the NC Division of Social Services.

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Click here for references cited in this issue.

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~ Family and Children's Resource Program ~